Authentication in an Active Claims Model

When working with Claims Based Authentication a lot of things are similar between the two different models, Active and Passive.  However, there are a few cases where things differ… a lot.  The biggest of course being how a Request for Security Token (RST) is authenticated.  In a passive model the user is given a web page where they can essentially have full reign over how credentials are handled.  Once the credentials have been received and authenticated by the web server, the server generates an identity and passes it off to SecurityTokenService.Issue(…) and does it’s thing by gathering claims, packaging them up into a token, and POST’ing the token back to the Relying Party.

Basically we are handling authentication any other way an ASP.NET application would, by using the Membership provider and funnelling all anonymous users to the login page, and then redirecting back to the STS.  To hand off to the STS, we can just call:


However, it’s a little different with the active model.

Web services manage identity via tokens but they differ from passive models because everything is passed via tokens including credentials.  The client consumes the credentials and packages them into a SecurityToken object which is serialized and passed to the STS.  The STS deserializes the token and passes it off to a SecurityTokenHandler.  This security token handler validates the credentials and generates an identity and pushes it up the call stack to the STS.

Much like with ASP.NET, there is a built in Membership Provider for username/password combinations, but you are limited to the basic functionality of the provider.  90% of the time, this is probably just fine.  Other times you may need to create your own SecurityTokenHandler.  It’s actually not that hard to do.

First you need to know what sort of token is being passed across the wire.  The big three are:

  • UserNameSecurityToken – Has a username and password pair
  • WindowsSecurityToken – Used for Windows authentication using NTLM or Kerberos
  • X509SecurityToken – Uses x509 certificate for authentication

Each is pretty self explanatory.

Some others out of the box are:


Reflector is an awesome tool.  Just sayin’.

Now that we know what type of token we are expecting we can build the token handler.  For the sake of simplicity let’s create one for the UserNameSecurityToken.

To do that we create a new class derived from Microsoft.IdentityModel.Tokens.UserNameSecurityTokenHandler.  We could start at SecurityTokenHandler, but it’s an abstract class and requires a lot to get it working.  Suffice to say it’s mostly boilerplate code.

We now need to override a method and property: ValidateToken(SecurityToken token) and TokenType.

TokenType is used later on to tell what kind of token the handler can actually validate.  More on that in a minute.

Overriding ValidateToken is fairly trivial*.  This is where we actually handle the authentication.  However, it returns a ClaimsIdentityCollection instead of bool, so if the credentials are invalid we need to throw an exception.  I would recommend the SecurityTokenValidationException.  Once the authentication is done we get the identity for the credentials and bundle them up into a ClaimsIdentityCollection.  We can do that by creating an IClaimsIdentity and passing it into the constructor of a ClaimsIdentityCollection.

public override ClaimsIdentityCollection ValidateToken(SecurityToken token)
    UserNameSecurityToken userToken = token as UserNameSecurityToken;

    if (userToken == null)
        throw new ArgumentNullException("token");

    string username = userToken.UserName;
    string pass = userToken.Password;

    if (!Membership.ValidateUser(username, pass))
        throw new SecurityTokenValidationException("Username or password is wrong.");

    IClaimsIdentity ident = new ClaimsIdentity();
    ident.Claims.Add(new Claim(WSIdentityConstants.ClaimTypes.Name, username));

    return new ClaimsIdentityCollection(new IClaimsIdentity[] { ident });

Next we need set the TokenType:

public override Type TokenType
        return typeof(UserNameSecurityToken);

This property is used as a way to tell it’s calling parent that it can validate/authenticate any tokens of the type it returns.  The web service that acts as the STS loads a collection SecurityTokenHandler’s as part of it’s initialization and when it receives a token it iterates through the collection looking for one that can handle it.

To add the handler to the collection you add it via configuration or if you are crazy doing a lot of low level work you can add it to the SecurityTokenServiceConfiguration in the HostFactory for the service:

securityTokenServiceConfiguration.SecurityTokenHandlers.Add(new MyAwesomeUserNameSecurityTokenHandler())

To add it via configuration you first need to remove any other handlers that can validate the same type of token:

<remove type="Microsoft.IdentityModel.Tokens.WindowsUserNameSecurityTokenHandler,
Microsoft.IdentityModel, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31BF3856AD364E35" />
<remove type="Microsoft.IdentityModel.Tokens.MembershipUserNameSecurityTokenHandler,
Microsoft.IdentityModel, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31BF3856AD364E35" />
<add type="Syfuhs.IdentityModel.Tokens.MyAwesomeUserNameSecurityTokenHandler, Syfuhs.IdentityModel" />

That’s pretty much all there is to it.  Here is the class for the sake of completeness:

using System;
using System.IdentityModel.Tokens;
using System.Web.Security;
using Microsoft.IdentityModel.Claims;
using Microsoft.IdentityModel.Protocols.WSIdentity;
using Microsoft.IdentityModel.Tokens;

namespace Syfuhs.IdentityModel.Tokens
    public class MyAwesomeUserNameSecurityTokenHandler : UserNameSecurityTokenHandler
        public override bool CanValidateToken { get { return true; } }

        public override ClaimsIdentityCollection ValidateToken(SecurityToken token)
            UserNameSecurityToken userToken = token as UserNameSecurityToken;

            if (userToken == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("token");

            string username = userToken.UserName;
            string pass = userToken.Password;

            if (!Membership.ValidateUser(username, pass))
                throw new SecurityTokenValidationException("Username or password is wrong.");

            IClaimsIdentity ident = new ClaimsIdentity();
            ident.Claims.Add(new Claim(WSIdentityConstants.ClaimTypes.Name, username));

            return new ClaimsIdentityCollection(new IClaimsIdentity[] { ident });

* Trivial in the development sense, not trivial in the security sense.

Generating Federation Metadata Dynamically

In a previous post we looked at what it takes to actually write a Security Token Service.  If we knew what the STS offered and required already, we could set up a relying party relatively easily with that setup.  However, we don’t always know what is going on.  That’s the purpose of federation metadata.  It gives us a basic breakdown of the STS so we can interact with it.

Now, if we are building a custom STS we don’t have anything that is creating this metadata.  We could do it manually by hardcoding stuff in an xml file and then signing it, but that gets ridiculously tedious after you have to make changes for the third or fourth time – which will happen.  A lot.  The better approach is to generate the metadata automatically.  So in this post we will do just that.

The first thing you need to do is create a endpoint.  There is a well known path of /FederationMetadata/2007-06/FederationMetadata.xml that is generally used, so let’s use that.  There are a lot of options to generate dynamic content and in Programming Windows Identity Foundation, Vitorrio uses a WCF Service:

public interface IFederationMetadata
    [webGet(UriTemplate = "2007-06/FederationMetadata.xml")]
    XElement FederationMetadata();

It’s a great approach, but for some reason I prefer the way that Dominick Baier creates the endpoint in StarterSTS.  He uses an IHttpHandler and a web.config entry to create a handler:

<location path="FederationMetadata/2007-06">
        type="Syfuhs.TokenService.WSTrust.FederationMetadataHandler" />
<allow users="*" />

As such, I’m going to go that route.  Let’s take a look at the implementation for the handler:

using System.Web;

namespace Syfuhs.TokenService.WSTrust
    public class FederationMetadataHandler : IHttpHandler
        public void ProcessRequest(HttpContext context)

            context.Response.ContentType = "text/xml";


        public bool IsReusable { get { return false; } }

All the handler is doing is writing metadata out to a stream, which in this case is the response stream.  You can see that it is doing this through the MyAwesomeTokenServiceConfiguration class which we created in the previous article.  The SeriaizeMetadata method creates an instance of a MetadataSerializer and writes an entity to the stream:

public void SerializeMetadata(Stream stream)
    MetadataSerializer serializer = new MetadataSerializer();
    serializer.WriteMetadata(stream, GenerateEntities());

The entities are generated through a collection of tasks:

private EntityDescriptor GenerateEntities()
    if (entity != null)
        return entity;

    SecurityTokenServiceDescriptor sts = new SecurityTokenServiceDescriptor();



    entity = new EntityDescriptor(new EntityId(string.Format("https://{0}", host)))
        SigningCredentials = this.SigningCredentials


    return entity;

The entity is generated, and an object is created to describe the STS called a SecurityTokenServiceDescriptor.  At this point it’s just a matter of sticking in the data and defining the credentials used to sign the metadata:

private void FillSigningKey(SecurityTokenServiceDescriptor sts)
    KeyDescriptor signingKey
= new KeyDescriptor(this.SigningCredentials.SigningKeyIdentifier)
Use = KeyType.Signing


private void FillSupportedProtocols(SecurityTokenServiceDescriptor sts)
    sts.ProtocolsSupported.Add(new System.Uri(WSFederationConstants.Namespace));

private void FillEndpoints(SecurityTokenServiceDescriptor sts)
    EndpointAddress activeEndpoint
= new EndpointAddress(string.Format("https://{0}/TokenService/activeSTS.svc", host));

private void FillOfferedClaimTypes(ICollection<DisplayClaim> claimTypes)
    claimTypes.Add(new DisplayClaim(ClaimTypes.Name, "Name", ""));
    claimTypes.Add(new DisplayClaim(ClaimTypes.Email, "Email", ""));
    claimTypes.Add(new DisplayClaim(ClaimTypes.Role, "Role", ""));

That in a nutshell is how to create a basic metadata document as well as sign it.  There is a lot more information you can put into this, and you can find more things to work with in the Microsoft.IdentityModel.Protocols.WSFederation.Metadata namespace.

The Basics of Building a Security Token Service

Last week at TechDays in Toronto I ran into a fellow I worked with while I was at Woodbine.  He works with a consulting firm Woodbine uses, and he caught my session on Windows Identity Foundation.  His thoughts were (essentially—paraphrased) that the principle of Claims Authentication was sound and a good idea, however implementing it requires a major investment.  Yes.  Absolutely.  You will essentially be adding a new tier to the application.  Hmm.  I’m not sure if I can get away with that analogy.  It will certainly feel like you are adding a new tier anyway.

What strikes me as the main investment is the Security Token Service.  When you break it down, there are a lot of moving parts in an STS.  In a previous post I asked what it would take to create something similar to ADFS 2.  I said it would be fairly straightforward, and broke down the parts as well as what would be required of them.  I listed:

  • Token Services
  • A Windows Authentication end-point
  • An Attribute store-property-to-claim mapper (maps any LDAP properties to any claim types)
  • An application management tool (MMC snap-in and PowerShell cmdlets)
  • Proxy Services (Allows requests to pass NAT’ed zones)

These aren’t all that hard to develop.  With the exception of the proxy services and token service itself, there’s a good chance we have created something similar to each one if user authentication is part of an application.  We have the authentication endpoint: a login form to do SQL Authentication, or the Windows Authentication Provider for ASP.NET.  We have the attribute store and something like a claims mapper: Active Directory, SQL databases, etc.  We even have an application management tool: anything you used to manage users in the first place.  This certainly doesn’t get us all the way there, but they are good starting points.

Going back to my first point, the STS is probably the biggest investment.  However, it’s kind of trivial to create an STS using WIF.  I say that with a big warning though: an STS is a security system.  Securing such a system is NOT trivial.  Writing your own STS probably isn’t the best way to approach this.  You would probably be better off to use an STS like ADFS.  With that being said it’s good to know what goes into building an STS, and if you really do have the proper resources to develop one, as well as do proper security testing (you probably wouldn’t be reading this article on how to do it in that case…), go for it.

For the sake of simplicity I’ll be going through the Fabrikam Shipping demo code since they did a great job of creating a simple STS.  The fun bits are in the Fabrikam.IPSts project under the Identity folder.  The files we want to look at are CustomSecurityTokenService.cs, CustomSecurityTokenServiceConfiguration.cs, and the default.aspx code file.  I’m not sure I like the term “configuration”, as the way this is built strikes me as factory-ish.


The process is pretty simple.  A request is made to default.aspx which passes the request to FederatedPassiveSecurityTokenServiceOperations.ProcessRequest() as well as a newly instantiated CustomSecurityTokenService object by calling CustomSecurityTokenServiceConfiguration.Current.CreateSecurityTokenService().

The configuration class contains configuration data for the STS (hence the name) like the signing certificate, but it also instantiates an instance of the STS using the configuration.  The code for is simple:

namespace Microsoft.Samples.DPE.Fabrikam.IPSts
    using Microsoft.IdentityModel.Configuration;
    using Microsoft.IdentityModel.SecurityTokenService;

    internal class CustomSecurityTokenServiceConfiguration
: SecurityTokenServiceConfiguration
        private static CustomSecurityTokenServiceConfiguration current;

        private CustomSecurityTokenServiceConfiguration()
            this.SecurityTokenService = typeof(CustomSecurityTokenService);
            this.SigningCredentials =
new X509SigningCredentials(this.ServiceCertificate);
            this.TokenIssuerName = "";

        public static CustomSecurityTokenServiceConfiguration Current
                if (current == null)
                    current = new CustomSecurityTokenServiceConfiguration();

                return current;

It has a base type of SecurityTokenServiceConfiguration and all it does is set the custom type for the new STS, the certificate used for signing, and the issuer name.  It then lets the base class handle the rest.  Then there is the STS itself.  It’s dead simple.  The custom class has a base type of SecurityTokenService and overrides a couple methods.  The important method it overrides is GetOutputClaimsIdentity():

protected override IClaimsIdentity GetOutputClaimsIdentity(
IClaimsPrincipal principal, RequestSecurityToken request, Scope scope)
    var inputIdentity = (IClaimsIdentity)principal.Identity;

    Claim name = inputIdentity.Claims.Single(claim =>
claim.ClaimType == ClaimTypes.Name);
    Claim email = new Claim(ClaimTypes.Email,
Membership.Provider.GetUser(name.Value, false).Email);
    string[] roles = Roles.Provider.GetRolesForUser(name.Value);

    var issuedIdentity = new ClaimsIdentity();

    foreach (var role in roles)
        var roleClaim = new Claim(ClaimTypes.Role, role);

    return issuedIdentity;

It gets the authenticated user, grabs all the roles from the RolesProvider, and generates a bunch of claims then returns the identity.  Pretty simple.

At this point you’ve just moved the authentication and Roles stuff away from the application.  Nothing has really changed data-wise.  If you only cared about roles, name, and email you are done.  If you needed something more you could easily add in the logic to grab the values you needed. 

By no means is this production ready, but it is a good basis for how the STS creates claims.

Token Request Validation in ASP.NET

Earlier this week during my TechDays presentation on Windows Identity Foundation, there was a part during the demo that I said would fail miserably after the user was authenticated and the token was POST’ed back to the relying party.  Out of the box, ASP.NET does request validation.  If a user has submitted content through request parameters it goes through a validation step, and by default this step is to break on anything funky such as angle brackets.  This helps to deter things like cross site scripting attacks.  However, we were passing XML so we needed to turn off this validation.  There are two approaches to doing this.

The first approach, which is what I did in the demo, was to set the validation mode to “2.0”.  All this did was tell ASP.NET to use a less strict validation scheme.  To do that you need to add a line to the web.config file:

<httpRuntime requestValidationMode=”2.0” />

This is not the best way to do things though.  It creates a new vector for attack, as you’ve just allowed an endpoint to accept trivial data.  What is more preferred is to create a custom request validator.  You can find a great example in the Fabrikam Shipping demo.

It’s pretty straightforward to create a validator.  First you create a class that inherits System.Web.Util.RequestValidator, and then you override the method IsValidRequestString(…).  At that point you can do anything you want to validate, but the demo code tries to build a SignInResponseMessage object from the wresult parameter.  If it creates the object successfully the request is valid.  Otherwise it passes the request to the base implementation of IsValidRequestString(…).

The code to handle this validation is pretty straightforward:

    public class WSFederationRequestValidator : RequestValidator
        protected override bool IsValidRequestString(HttpContext context,
            string value, RequestValidationSource requestValidationSource, 
            string collectionKey, out int validationFailureIndex)
            validationFailureIndex = 0;

            if (requestValidationSource == RequestValidationSource.Form
                && collectionKey.Equals(WSFederationConstants.Parameters.Result, 
                SignInResponseMessage message =
                     as SignInResponseMessage;

                if (message != null)
                    return true;

            return base.IsValidRequestString(context, value, requestValidationSource,
                   collectionKey, out validationFailureIndex);

Once you’ve created your request validator, you need to update the web.config file to tell .NET to use the validator.  You can do that by adding the following xml:

<httpRuntime requestValidationType="Microsoft.Samples.DPE.FabrikamShipping.Web.Security.WSFederationRequestValidator" />

You can find the validation code in FabrikamShipping.Web\Security\WSFederationRequestValidator.cs within the FabrikamShipping solution.

What makes Claims Based Authentication Secure?

Update: I should have mentioned this when I first posted, but some of these thoughts are the result of me reading Programming Windows Identity Foundation.  While I hope I haven’t copied the ideas outright, I believe the interpretation is unique-ish. Smile

One of the main reasons we as developers shy away from new technologies is because we are afraid of it.  As we learned in elementary school, the reason we are afraid usually boils down to not having enough information about the topic.  I’ve found this especially true with anything security related.  So, lets think about something for a minute.

I’m not entirely sure how valid a method this is for measure, but I like to think that as developers we measure our understanding of something by how much we abstract away the problems it creates.  Now let me ask you this question:

How much of an abstraction layer do we create for identity?

Arguably very little because in most cases we half-ass it.

I say this knowing full well I’m extremely guilty of it.  Sure, I’d create a User class and populate with application specific data, but to populate the object I would call Active Directory or SQL directly.  That created a tightly coupled dependency between the application and the user store.  That works perfectly up until you need to migrate those users in a SQL database to Active Directory.  Oops.

So why do we do this?

My reason for doing this is pretty simple.  I didn’t know any better.  The reason I didn’t know better was also pretty simple.  Of the available options to abstract away the identity I didn’t understand how the technology worked, or more likely, I didn’t trust it.  Claims based authentication is a perfect example of this.  I thought to myself when I first came across this: “are you nuts?  You want me to hand over authentication to someone else and then I have to trust them that what they give me is valid?  I don’t think so.”

Well, yes actually.

Authentication, identification, and authorization are simply processes in the grand scheme of an application lifecycle.  They are privileged, but that just means we need to be careful about it.  Fear, as it turns out, is the number one reason why we don’t abstract this part out.*

With that, I thought it would be a perfect opportunity to take a look at a few of the reasons why Claims based authentication is reasonably secure.  I would also like to take this time to compare some of these reasons to why our current methods of user authentication are usually done wrong.


First and foremost we trust the source.  Obviously a bank isn’t going to accept a handwritten piece of paper with my name on it as proof that I am me.  It stands to reason that you aren’t going to accept an identity from some random 3rd party provider for important proof of identity.

Encryption + SSL

The connection between RP and STS is over SSL.  Therefore no man in the middle attacks.  Then you encrypt the token.  Much like the SSL connection, the STS encrypts the payload with the RP’s public key, which only the RP can decrypt with its private key.  If you don’t use SSL anyone eavesdropping on the connection still can’t read the payload.  Also, the STS usually keeps a local copy of the certificate for token encryption.

How many of us encrypt our SQL connections when verifying  the user’s password?  How many of us use secured LDAP queries to Active Directory?  How many of us encrypt our web services?  I usually forget to.

Audience whitelist

Most commercial STS applications require that each request come from an approved Relying Party.  Moreover, most of those applications require that the endpoint that it responds to also be on an approved list.  You could probably fake it through DNS poisoning, but the certificates used for encryption and SSL would prevent you from doing anything meaningful since you couldn’t decrypt the token.

Do we verify the identity of the application requesting information from the SQL database?  Not usually the application.  However, we could do it via Kerberos impersonation.  E.g. lock down the specific data to the currently logged in/impersonated user.

Expiration and Duplication Prevention

All tokens have authentication timestamps.  They also normally have expiration timestamps.  Therefore they have a window of time that defines how long they are valid.  It is up to the application accepting the token to make sure the window is still acceptable, but it is still an opportunity for verification.  This also gives us the opportunity to prevent replay attacks.  All we have to do is keep track of all incoming tokens within the valid time window and see if the tokens repeat.  If so, we reject them.

There isn’t much we can do in a traditional setting to prevent this from happening.  If someone eavesdrops on the connection and grabs the username/password between the browser and your application, game over.  They don’t need to spoof anything.  They have the credentials.  SSL can fix this problem pretty easily though.


Once the token has been created by the STS, it will be signed by the STS’s private key.  If the token is modified in any way the signature wont match.  Since it is being signed by the private key of the STS, only the STS can resign it, however anyone can verify the signature through the STS’s public key.  And since it’s a certificate for the STS, we can use it as strong proof that the STS is who they say they are.  For a good primer on public key/private key stuff check out Wikipedia.

It's pretty tricky to modify payloads between SQL and an application, but it is certainly possible.  Since we don’t usually encrypt the connections (I am guilty of this daily – It’s something I need to work on Winking smile), intercepting packets and modifying them on the fly is possible.  There isn’t really a way to verify if the payload has been tampered with.

Sure, there is a level of trust between the data source and the application if they are both within the same datacenter, but what if it’s being hosted offsite by a 3rd party?  There is always going to be a situation where integrity can become an issue.  The question at that point then is: how much do you trust the source, as well as the connection to the source?

Authentication Level

Finally, if we are willing to accept that each item above increases the security and validity of the identity, there is really only one thing left to make sure is acceptable.  How was the user authenticated?  Username/password, Kerberos, smart card/certificates, etc.  If we aren’t happy with how they were authenticated, we don’t accept the token.

So now that we have a pretty strong basis for what makes the tokens containing claims as well as the relationship between the RP’s and STS’s secure, we don’t really need to fear the Claims model.

Now we just need to figure out how to replace our old code with the identity abstraction. Smile

* Strictly anecdotal evidence, mind you.

Managing Identity in SharePoint

Yet another presentation on the docket!  I submitted an abstract to SharePoint Summit 2011 and they accepted!  I will be presenting on SharePoint and how it manages Identity.  More specifically, how SharePoint 2010 uses WIF to handle Claims based authentication and Federation.

Here are the details

Event: SharePoint Summit 2011, January 31st 2011 – February 2nd, 2011

When: 11:30 a.m. - 12:45 p.m. February 1st, 2011

Where: Four Seasons Hotel, Toronto

Abstract: Managing identities within an organization is relatively easy. However, as business changes, we need to be able to adapt quickly. Identity is something that often gets overlooked in adaptation. In this session we will discuss the Windows Identity Foundation and how SharePoint uses it to adapt easily to change.


Changing the Identity Game with the Windows Identity Foundation

Similar to the TVBUG presentation, I will be presenting on the Windows Identity Foundation to the Metro Toronto .NET User Group.

Here are the details:

When: November 10th, 2010

Where: KPMG, 333 Bay Street, 10th Floor, Toronto

Abstract: Identity is a tricky thing to manage. These days every application requires some knowledge of the user, which inevitably requires users to log in and out of the applications to prove they are who they are as well as requiring the application to keep record of the accounts. With the Windows Identity Foundation, built on top of a Claims-based architecture, there is a fundamental shift in the way we manage these users and their accounts. In this presentation we will take a look at the why's and dig into the how's of the Windows Identity Foundation by building an Identity aware application from scratch.

Presenting a TechDays Local Flavours Track Session!

Earlier this morning I got an email from John Bristowe congratulating me on being selected to present a session for the local flavours track at TechDays in Toronto!  This bumps up my count to 2.  Needless to say I am REALLY excited.

I was a little disappointed to find out there weren’t any sessions on the Windows Identity Foundation, so that just meant I had to submit my own to the local flavours track…and they accepted it!  Here are the details:

October 27, 3:40 PM to 4:45 PM

Breakout | LFT330: Windows Identity Foundation Simplified: All the Scary Things Made Un-Scary

The Windows Identity Foundation helps simplify user access for developers by externalizing user access from applications via claims and reducing development effort with pre-built security logic and integrated .NET tools. This presentation is an intimate discussion on the basics of the Windows Identity Foundation and its claims model. In this session, you’ll learn how to refactor an existing sample set of applications to use WIF, to connect identities to the Cloud, and to remove the burden of managing multiple disparate user stores.

Location: Metro Toronto Convention Centre - South Building (255 Front Street West, Toronto)

Room: TBA


Presentation: Changing the Identity Game with the Windows Identity Foundation

Rob Windsor and TVBUG are letting me present on November 8th on Claims-Based Authentication and Identification.  Here are the details:

Location: Room 1, Library, 2nd floor, North York Public Library

Date: Monday, November 8, 2010

6:30 to 6:50 (Pizza - Meet and Greet)
6:50 to 7:00 (Group Business)
7:00 to 9:00 (Presentation)

Topic: Changing the Identity Game with the Windows Identity Foundation

Abstract: Identity is a tricky thing to manage. These days every application requires some knowledge of the user, which inevitably requires users to log in and out of the applications to prove they are who they are as well as keep a record of their accounts. With the Windows Identity Foundation, there is a fundamental shift in the way we manage these users and their accounts. In this presentation we will take a look at the why's and dig into the how's of the Windows Identity Foundation by building an Identity aware application from scratch.


All TVBUG meetings are held at the North York Public Library or North York Memorial Hall. Both are located in the same building at Yonge Street and Park Home Avenue (North of the 401 between Sheppard and Finch across from Empress Walk). If you are taking the Subway get off at the North York Centre Station. The library meeting rooms are on the 2nd Floor. Memorial Hall meeting rooms are on the Concourse Level near the food court.

Using Claims Based Identities with SharePoint 2010

When SharePoint 2010 was developed, Microsoft took extra care to include support for a claims-based identity model.  There are quite a few benefits to doing it this way, one of which is that it simplifies managing identities across organizational structures.  So lets take a look at adding a Secure Token Service as an Authentication Provider to SharePoint 2010.

First, Some Prerequisites

  • You have to use PowerShell for most of this.  You wouldn’t/shouldn’t be adding too many Providers to SharePoint all that often so there isn’t a GUI for this.
  • The claims that SharePoint will know about must be known during setup.  This isn’t that big a deal, but…

Telling SharePoint about the STS

Once you’ve collected all the information you need, open up PowerShell as an Administrator and add the SharePoint snap-in on the server.

Add-PSSnapin Microsoft.SharePoint.PowerShell

Next we need to create the certificate and claim mapping objects:

$cert = New-Object System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2("d:\path\to\adfsCert.cer")

$claim1 = New-SPClaimTypeMapping -IncomingClaimType "" -IncomingClaimTypeDisplayName "Role" –SameAsIncoming

$claim2 = New-SPClaimTypeMapping "" -IncomingClaimTypeDisplayName "EmailAddress" –SameAsIncoming

There should be three lines.  They will be word-wrapped.

The certificate is pretty straightforward.  It is the public key of the STS.  The claims are also pretty straightforward.  There are two claims: the roles of the identity, and the email address of the identity.  You can add as many as the STS will support.

Next is to define the realm of the Relying Party; i.e. the SharePoint server.

$realm = "urn:" + $env:ComputerName + ":adfs"

By using a URN value you can mitigate future changes to addresses.  This becomes especially useful in an intranet/extranet scenario.

Then we define the sign-in URL for the STS.  In this case, we are using ADFS:

$signinurl = https://[myAdfsServer.fullyqualified.domainname]/adfs/ls/

Mind the SSL.

And finally we put it all together:

New-SPTrustedIdentityTokenIssuer -Name "MyDomainADFS2" -Description "ADFS 2 Federated Server for MyDomain" -Realm $realm -ImportTrustCertificate $cert -ClaimsMappings $claim1,$claim2 -SignInUrl $signinurl -IdentifierClaim $claim2.InputClaimType

This should be a single line, word wrapped.  If you wanted to you could just call New-SPTrustedIdentityTokenIssuer and then fill in the values one at a time.  This might be useful for debugging.

At this point SharePoint now knows about the STS but none of the sites are set up to use it.

Authenticating SharePoint sites using the STS

For a good measure restart SharePoint/IIS.  Go into SharePoint Administration and create a new website and select Claims Based Authentication at the top:


Fill out the rest of the details and then when you get to Claims Authentication Types select Trusted Identity Provider and then select your STS.  In this case it is my ADFS Server:


Save the site and you are done.  Try navigating to the site and it should redirect you to your STS.  You can then manage users as you would normally with Active Directory accounts.